40M CW Transmitter QRP Pixie Kit Receiver

Wandering around on Ebay, I found myself looking again at the Pixie QRP morse code transceiver.

I purchased for $15 from seller “19d10recon” and got 2 crystal frequencies to use. Laying out the parts I found I was missing 2 but very quickly received those form the seller. 

IMG_2608

This was a very fast build. Easy once the parts are laid out and great layout.

IMG_2625IMG_2626

 

Here is the schematic and parts list:

Here is the finished project with #D printed case as well.

You might notice a modification I did in the center top of the picture on the board. I loved that I got 2 crystals and this had me thinking…. Perhaps I want some flexibility with my frequency. I decided to put a pin board in to ensure I can use different through hole crystals.

IMG_2697IMG_2698

Have fun and 73’s,

Let me know what questions you want me to address or if anything is unclear. My email is k0fey@arrl.net

radioactive

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New (to me) projects on the bench – Part 2

Started going through the bench stuff from Craigslist:

2) B & K Precision 177 VTVM Dynascan Vacuum Tube Volt Meter Tester – Works, nothing needed.

3) Superior Electric 3PN 116B Variable Powerstat Auto Transformer 109A 0-140 VAC – Works, nothing needed.

11)Triad N-55M Isolation Transformer 115V-115V 250VA-60hz – Works, nothing needed.

13) Shurite Panel Meter – Cleaning needed

Meter tested in good condition but had something on the plastic front. I easily disassembled the meter and tried to wash the cover in warm water, no luck… then soapy warm water, no luck, then scrubbing pretty hard, no luck.

Well, time to get creative, I have been wanting to try this for a while anyway. Taping off the bottom section, to preserve the “fog” there, I proceeded to wet sand (250 grit) the cover for a few minutes until the sanding was all I saw. This left a dull sand line and then I proceeded to use 600 Grit and then 1000 and 2000 to get to a dull fine finish. I would estimate I did around 5 minutes of sanding with each grit rinsing every few minutes.

Then I polished with tooth paste. Yes, toothpaste. I used a paper towel and a dab of tooth paste and rubbed for about 5 minutes and this brought back the clearness. You can see the final result.

Reassemble and pop this one on the shelf to use later.

 

Here is what is left:

1) Leader LBO-507A 20MHz Oscilloscope
4) REM Electronics Cathode Recovery and CRT Tester w/ original box 
5) B & K Precision Model 465 CRT Cathode Ray Tester with original manuals
6) Shurite Amperes Meter
7) EICO Model 950A Resistance Capacitance Compactor Bridge Tester 
8) EICO Model 221 Vacuum Tube Volt Meter
9) Edwards Signaling Transformer 88-100
10) Vapor Tight Heavy Duty Marine Power Selector Switch 12v 150A/6v 300A Continuous
12) ASI Dynamic Transistor Checker 
14) Louis Marx Model Train Transformer
15) Unknown tester device with old radio bulbs

Have fun and 73’s,

Let me know what questions you want me to address or if anything is unclear. My email is k0fey@arrl.net

radioactive

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New (to me) projects on the bench

I was looking through Craigslist and found a few things that will go into the repair bin. Will tackle these one at a time in the next few weeks. (I hope)

1) Leader LBO-507A 20MHz Oscilloscope
2) B & K Precision 177 VTVM Dynascan Vacuum Tube Volt Meter Tester
3) Superior Electric 3PN 116B Variable Powerstat Auto Transformer 109A 0-140 VAC
4) REM Electronics Cathode Recovery and CRT Tester w/ original box 
5) B & K Precision Model 465 CRT Cathode Ray Tester with original manuals
6) Shurite Amperes Meter
7) EICO Model 950A Resistance Capacitance Compactor Bridge Tester 
8) EICO Model 221 Vacuum Tube Volt Meter
9) Edwards Signaling Transformer 88-100
10) Vapor Tight Heavy Duty Marine Power Selector Switch 12v 150A/6v 300A Continous
11)Triad N-55M Isolation Transformer 115V-115V 250VA-60hz
12) ASI Dynamic Transistor Checker 
13) Shurite Panel Meter
14) Louis Marx Model Train Transformer
15) Unknown tester device with old radio bulbs

 

 

Have fun and 73’s,

Let me know what questions you want me to address or if anything is unclear. My email is k0fey@arrl.net

radioactive

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Tuning antennas for SWR

Tuning antennas for SWR

**Note: This method is that in which you will be cutting your antenna to ensure a resonant length.

Introduction: Common models of SWR (standing wave ratio) meters are used to give a general reference of how well an antenna is matched to a transmitter. It also has a very simple un-tuned field strength meter that utilizes a diode detector feeding the meter. It’s very insensitive.

So, you’ve put your radio into where you think it will live for a bit, you’ve got your antenna connected and have mounted it somewhere that may even have a decent ground plane. Everything is connected and ready to go, right? Wrong. It’s vital that you tune your antenna before using radio. If you’re not familiar with SWR or the necessity of adjusting you antenna to get a good reading, let us give you fair warning: improper tuning of your antenna has the potential to cause much worse than a weak broadcast signal…. it can end the life of your radio before you can enjoy it.

This article will walk you through the process of properly tuning your antenna (a.k.a., adjusting the SWR). It’s not a terribly difficult process, as long as you can follow directions and are patient enough for a little trial-and-error. Assuming that everything else in your system is properly installed, the only additional equipment necessary is a short length of coaxial cable (known as a jumper lead), an SWR meter, and something on which to record your readings.

The antenna matching unit, or antenna tuning unit, is designed to match a non 50 Ohm antenna to a 50 Ohm transmitter. When used, the SWR meter is connected between the transmitter and the matching unit and provides an indication of the SWR as the ATU/matching unit is tuned to the correct settings. Depending upon the design of the ATU/matching unit, it will either bring antenna into resonance or will just make the antenna look like it is the correct impedance without improving its resonance. We will not be using an antenna matching unit. This is instruction for those without an antenna matching unit. An antenna matching unit may also be referred to as an “Antenna Tuner”.

swr

Equipment needed: Transceiver (UHF, VHF, HF or CB radio), Antenna, Antenna coax, SWR meter, short jumper coax ~3 foot.

Procedure:   The SWR meter needs to be placed in line between the antenna and the transceiver. Connect the antenna (normally connected to the back of the radio) to the connector marked “Antenna” or “Ant” on your SWR Meter. Connect one end of the short jumper coax to the “transmit” or “Xmit” on the SWR meter. Connect the other end of your jumper coax to the transceiver.

Assuming you have a standard SWR meter the switches should read as follows: REF or SWR, FWD, and there should be a slide switch, or dial, marked “set”, “Cal”, “Calibrate” or “Adjust”. If different, be sure to consult your SWR meter’s owner’s manual.

As an SWR meter it is used as follows:

  1. Connect transmitter to SWR meter. (Use the jumper lead to connect your radio and the SWR meter through the connection marked “transmitter” or “XMIT.”)
  2. Connect Antenna to SWR meter. (If reviewing an already installed radio, disconnect the coaxial cable from the back of the radio. Reconnect this end of the cable, which is going to the antenna, to the SWR meter in the connector marked “antenna” or “ANT.”)
  3. Set variable control fully CCW (Counter Clock-Wise)
  4. Set Switch to FWD
  5. Switch on Transmitter and transmit on the lowest power that provides a reading on the meter. This protects the transmitter PA stage. (Remember, throughout this process it’s important to keep the microphone the same distance from the meter for each test.)
  6. Adjust the variable control to provide a reading in line with the calibration point. (Turn the knob on the SWR meter labeled “set”, “Cal”, “Calibrate” or “Adjust” until the needle reaches the setting position at the end of its range.)
  7. Stop transmitting.
  8. Without adjusting anything, set the switch to the REV position. (Now you are ready to measure the SWR on a few different frequencies.)
  9. Transmit again.
  10. Take a reading of the SWR on the meter.
  11. Record the reading given by your SWR meter and release the transmit key on your microphone. (Switch off the transmitter.)
  12. You are now going to repeat this process for additional frequencies. Follow steps 4 through 9.

How to read your results: 

The SWR reading shows the match of the antenna compared to 50 Ohms (The radio antenna input is normally 50 Ohms).

If SWR on the frequency tested is below 2.0, your radio can be operated safely.

If SWR on all channels is above 2.0 but not in the “red zone” (normally over 3.0), you may be experiencing coaxial cable reaction (bad quality, wrong length, etc.), insufficient ground plane, or have an ungrounded antenna mount.

If SWR is in the “red zone” on all channels, you probably have an electrical short in your coax connectors, or your mounting stud was installed incorrectly and is shorted. Do not operate your radio until the problem is found, serious damage can occur to your radio.

If SWR on the lowest frequency is higher than it is on the highest channel, your antenna system appears to be electrically short. Your antenna length may need to be increased.

If the SWR on the highest frequency is greater than that on the lowest, your antenna is considered to be “LONG” and reduction of physical height and/or conductor length will correct this situation.

The objective behind tuning your antenna is to make these two readings (Top and Bottom of the band) as close as possible. Getting down to a 1.5:1 ratio or below makes for a passable broadcast signal. Here is an example to help you understand before adjusting the length of your antenna:

               If the SWR on 14.280 Mhz is higher than that on 14.100 Mhz, your antenna is too long.

               If the SWR on 14.100 Mhz is higher than that on 14.280 Mhz, your antenna is too short.

If your antenna is too long, it is necessary to reduce its physical length. There are several methods for shortening an antenna which vary by manufacturer. Consult your owner’s manual for detailed instructions on how to shorten your antenna. While many antennas feature a “tunable tip” that uses a small screw, some antennas may need to be cut to be shortened. Do so in 1/4″ increments and then get new readings to determine your progress.

If your antenna is too short, it is necessary to increase its physical length. Most instances where the antenna length is too short are caused by a lack of ground plane. In modern antennas, there’s usually a method for adding length built in to the antenna. Other options, such as adding a spring, are also legitimate.

Dual antenna installations: If you’re tuning dual antennas, you’ll want to adjust both antennas the same amount each time. As a starting point, it’s best to put the tuning screw either all the way in or out, so each antenna is the same length. Then, based on your SWR readings, length or shorten BOTH antennas the same amount each time. Re-measure SWR and continue to re-adjust as with a single antenna, making sure to make incremental changes that are as close as possible to both antennas.

Readings on both channels that are less than 2.0 mean that your radio is safe to operate, but transmission may not be optimal. If readings on these channels are in the red zone on your SWR meter or above 3.0, do not attempt to use your radio. This problem must be remedied before attempting to use your radio.

Troubleshooting: Let’s review the most common problems that cause your SWR meter to register danger on all channels: poor grounds, a short in the coaxial connectors, or an improperly installed mounting stud.

  1. Vehicle installations: A large percentage of high SWR readings are caused by ground plane problems. It’s a good idea to run ground straps from the body of your vehicle to the frame, doors, and trunk. Running the shortest possible ground strap from the antenna to the chassis or your vehicle is generally a good solution for ground plane problems. Simply put, grounding everything that can be ground together will improve ground plane.
  2. Vehicle installations: It is essential that your mount is properly grounded. Most improperly grounded mounts are connected to places on your vehicle that themselves are not thoroughly grounded. Any part of your vehicle that has a plastic or nylon bushing separating it from the chassis is probably not grounded. Also, chassis paint can often prevent a mount from being properly grounded. You can check the grounding of suspect parts with a voltage meter.
  3. A short in the coaxial connectors may also be the culprit behind abnormally high SWR readings. Issues with the coaxial cables are often identifiable by eye, such as severe bends or pinches. You should know that it’s essential to use 50-ohm coax for single antennas and 75-ohm for dual. When all else fails, sometimes it’s necessary to replace the coax cable because there’s a failure inside the line.

By following the steps outlined in this article, you should be able to successfully tune your antenna for optimal performance and transmission.

Have fun and 73’s,

Let me know what questions you want me to address or if anything is unclear. My email is k0fey@arrl.net

radioactive

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FAA Medical Reform defined

FAA Medical Reform

Today, January 11th 2017, the FAA announced its final rule on Medical Reform to go into effect May 1st. A pilot may opt to continue using their medical certificate or opt to exercise this rule instead.

It essentially means the new medical requirements are:

  • Possess a valid driver’s license;
  • Have held a medical certificate at any time after July 15, 2006;
  • Have not had the most recently held medical certificate revoked, suspended, or withdrawn;
  • Have not had the most recent application for airman medical certification completed and denied;
  • Have taken a medical education course within the past 24 calendar months;
  • Have completed a comprehensive medical examination within the past 48 months;
  • Be under the care of a physician for certain medical conditions;
  • Have been found eligible for special issuance of a medical certificate for certain specified mental health, neurological, or cardiovascular conditions;
  • Consent to a National Driver Register check;
  • Fly only certain small aircraft, at a limited altitude and speed, and only within the United States;
  • Not fly for compensation or hire.

Keep in mind the FAA can still suspend or revoke a medical certificate if it finds evidence to do so.

Under this rule the covered aircraft under FESSA:

(1) is authorized under Federal law to carry not more than 6 occupants; and (2) has a maximum certificated takeoff weight of not more than 6,000 pounds.

Section 2307(a)(8) of FESSA requires that the individual operate in accordance with the following operating requirements:

• The covered aircraft is carrying not more than 5 passengers.

• The individual is operating the covered aircraft under visual flight rules or instrument flight rules.

• The flight, including each portion of that flight, is not carried out—

• for compensation or hire, including that no passenger or property on the flight is being carried for compensation or hire;

• at an altitude that is more than 18,000 feet above mean sea level;

• outside the United States, unless authorized by the country in which the flight is conducted; or

• at an indicated airspeed exceeding 250 knots.

List of affected Subjects:

14 CFR part 61 Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

14 CFR part 68 Aircraft, Airmen, Health, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

14 CFR part 91 Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety.

It is a 77 page document and goes through much more than I can give here. You can read the full document here until it is published or amended:

https://www.faa.gov/news/updates/media/final_rule_faa_2016_9157.pdf

as always, trust but verify….

Happy flying,

K0FEY

K0feyProp

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Ham Night before Christmas, Tracker and Santa Net

Merry Christmas Fellow Hams!!!

Santa Tracker:

For over 60 years, NORAD and its predecessor, the Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) have tracked Santa’s flight. Follow Santa as he makes his magical journey!

noradsanta.org

Santa Net:

Every year on 3916, we give good little boys and girls a chance to talk to Santa Claus at the North Pole!   It is indeed a magical experience to experience kids talking with Santa through the magic of Amateur Radio!

The Santa Net is on the air every night, November 25th through December 24th at 7:30 PM Central.

To participate in The Santa Net, just have your kids prepared to tell Santa their top 2-3 gift wishes.

Ham Night Before Christmas:

T’was the night before Christmas,
And all through two-meters,
Not a signal was keying up
Any repeaters.The antennas reached up
From the tower, quite high,
To catch the weak signals
That bounced from the sky.The children, Tech-Pluses,
Took their HTs to bed,
And dreamed of the day
They’d be Extras, instead.Mom put on her headphones,
I plugged in the key,
And we tuned 40 meters
For that rare ZK3.When the meter was pegged
by a signal with power.
It smoked a small diode,
and, I swear, shook the tower.Mom yanked off her phones,
And with all she could muster
Logged a spot of the signal
On the DX Packet Cluster,While I ran to the window
And peered up at the sky,
To see what could generate
RF that high.It was way in the distance,
But the moon made it gleam –
A flying sleigh, with an
Eight element beam,And a little old driver
who looked slightly mean.
So I though for a moment,
That it might be Wayne Green.But no, it was Santa
The Santa of Hams.
On a mission, this Christmas
To clean up the bands.He circled the tower,
Then stopped in his track,
And he slid down the coax
Right into the shack.While Mom and I hid
Behind stacks of CQ,
This Santa of hamming
Knew just what to do.He cleared off the shack desk
Of paper and parts,
And filled out all my late QSLs
For a start.He ran copper braid,
Took a steel rod and pounded
It into the earth, till
The station was grounded.He tightened loose fittings,
Re-soldered connections,
Cranked down modulation,
Installed lightning protection.He neutralized tubes
In my linear amp…(Never worked right before —
Now it works like a champ).A new, low-pass filter
Cleaned up the TV,
He corrected the settings
In my TNC.He repaired the computer
That would not compute,
And he backed up the hard drive
And got it to boot.Then, he reached really deep
In the bag that he brought,
And he pulled out a big box,
“A new rig?” I thought!”A new Kenwood? An Icom?
A Yaesu, for me?!”
(If he thought I’d been bad
it might be QRP!)Yes! The Ultimate Station!
How could I deserve this?
Could it be all those hours
that I worked Public Service?He hooked it all up
And in record time, quickly
Worked 100 countries,
All down on 160.I should have been happy,
It was my call he sent,
But the cards and the postage
Will cost two month’s rent!He made final adjustments,
And left a card by the key:
“To Gary, from Santa Claus.
Seventy-Three.”Then he grabbed his HT,
Looked me straight in the eye,
Punched a code on the pad,
And was gone – no good bye.I ran back to the station,
And the pile-up was big,
But a card from St. Nick
Would be worth my new rig.
Oh, too late, for his final
came over the air.
It was copied all over.
It was heard everywhere.The Ham’s Santa exclaimed
What a ham might expect,
“Merry Christmas to all,
And to all, good DX.”© 1996 Gary Pearce, KN4AQ
Permission granted for any print or electronic reproduction.

 

Have fun and 73’s,

Let me know what questions you want me to address or if anything is unclear. My email is k0fey@arrl.net

radioactive

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People don’t do the things they need to

Taking a time out for a quick life hack. I wrote this article for my work and thought you might benefit from it.

People don’t do the things they need to.

You ask your child to take out the trash or clean their room. An employee is asked to change to a new process when they perform a task. You ask your significant other to fill the tank on the car on their way home. They don’t.

There are a few reasons that bubble to the top as to why people do not do what is asked of them even if it is better for everyone that they do the new thing. And I am sorry to say, it is probably your fault. Yes, Your fault. Let’s go through some of the reasons why things just don’t get done and what part of the communications breakdown we are looking at.

They do not understand why they should do it.

Does everyone understand the impact of doing or not doing the task by a specific deadline? You finally got that big client meeting tomorrow. Everything has to go perfect and you do not want to spend time filling the tank when you could focus on preparing or being a little early to the meeting. Did you tell them that? Or did you leave it as “Please fill the tank on the car.”? Explaining when and why you need it done might give the motivation for others to do something needed. Give people the “big picture”.

Another example… Your company has rolled out a new case system. Employees have access to both and although you asked them to use the new system they just still use the old one. What are the benefits of the new system? Why do we have it when the old one works well enough? If you cannot answer these then you will not get buy in for others to use it either.

Unless you just force them. (<- not a great scenario in the long run)

Ever wonder why sometimes an employee will surpass the expectations of a business? It is because they are simply being rewarded. These can be rewards such as more money, peer recognition, a competitive nature, a little time off for family or the odd golf game. The go-getters in an organization are getting what they need and giving back in abundance. Make sure you have talked to your employee and understand what it is that motivates them.

They do not understand how to do it.

Have they been properly trained and comfortable navigating any deviations of how to perform the new task? You had them watch the training video and it isn’t so hard. Is the training video in terms only you understand? Use plain English instead of buzz words.

Did you give them adequate training? Does an employee know they can spellcheck in outlook with a click of a button or are they speed-proof-reading their emails when they send them out to customers… and making the company not look so good in the process? Sometimes people are trying to be efficient and get their jobs done quicker but skipping due diligence. Ensure you have given them the best way to do it for them and not just the best way for you. Make sure they understand the reasons the thing being asked benefits them. It sounds simple enough but is often overlooked.

They do not want to do it.

Is the punishment for doing it wrong larger than the punishment for not doing it at all? All too often you hold those accountable that do it wrong and simply are annoyed with the ones that aren’t even trying. People will almost always go the least painful route given. Sometimes it is as simple as there is no reward for doing something as opposed to not. (Or no punishment for not doing something)

On the other hand, maybe you are making it too easy for them not to. Have you given the same steps several times to someone and they do not seem to get it? Do you micromanage? Will you do it for them if they do not? If you are there to “constantly give them the same steps over and over and they are simply not following a “rinse and repeat” formula” then you will want to look at this one. Maybe the solution is to back away and set the expectation that they will be held accountable from now on.

They can’t do it.

Could it be that you have not given all the tools to do the task? This could be knowledge, access, support, etc. Make sure the person has everything they need to do something. Have they seen it done and do they know how to start? Sometimes people are just missing a piece of the puzzle to get them started or past a hurdle because they have not encountered the situation before.

You child is supposed to take out the trash. They don’t. Do they know that they should take out the bathroom and kitchen trash and empty those into the waste can? Have you shown them where the replacement bags are and the schedule for trash day?

 

All too often we overlook fully communicating. We are focused on our part of getting something done and forget to manage our expectations to others. Next time you are having trouble with someone not doing something, try ensuring they have all the info. Help others understand why they are being asked, tell them how to do something, help them understand the benefits to everyone and give them all the resources they need to do it.

 

Jonathan Hamilton

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Aviation Maintenance Squawks

Taken from here.

After every flight, pilots fill out a form, called a gripe sheet which tells mechanics about problems with the aircraft. The mechanics correct the problems, document their repairs on the form, and then pilots review the gripe sheets before the next flight.

Never let it be said that ground crews lack a sense of humor. Here are some maintenance complaints submitted by pilots and the solutions recorded by maintenance engineers. By the way, the airline these came from is the only major airline that has never, ever, had an accident.

Pilot: Left inside main tire almost needs replacement. Engineers: Almost replaced left inside main tire.

Pilot: Test flight OK, except auto-land very rough. Engineers: Auto-land not installed on this aircraft.

Pilot: Something loose in cockpit. Engineers: Something tightened in cockpit.

Pilot: Dead bugs on windshield. Engineers: Live bugs on back-order.

Pilot: Autopilot in altitude-hold mode produces a 200 feet per minute descent. Engineers: Cannot reproduce problem on ground.

Pilot: Evidence of leak on right main landing gear. Engineers: Evidence removed.

Pilot: DME volume unbelievably loud. Engineers: DME volume set to more believable level.

Pilot: Friction locks cause throttle levers to stick. Engineers: That’s what friction locks are for.

Pilot: IFF inoperative in OFF mode. Engineers: IFF always inoperative in OFF mode.

Pilot: Suspected crack in windshield. Engineers: Suspect you’re right.

Pilot: Number 3 engine missing. Engineers: Engine found on right wing after brief search.

Pilot: Aircraft handles funny. Engineers: Aircraft warned to straighten up, fly right, and be serious.

Pilot: Target radar hums. Engineers: Reprogrammed target radar with lyrics.

Pilot: Mouse in cockpit. Engineers: Cat installed.

Pilot: Noise coming from under instrument panel. Sounds like a midget pounding on something with a hammer. Engineers: Took hammer away from midget

 

 

And

Problem – Test flight OK, except autoland very rough. Solution – Autoland not installed on this aircraft.

Problem – No. 2 propeller seeping prop fluid. Solution – No. 2 propeller seepage normal. Nos. 1, 3 and 4 propellers lack normal seepage.

Problem – Something loose in cockpit. Solution – Something tightened in cockpit.

Problem – Dead bugs on windshield. Solution – Live bugs on backorder.

Problem – Autopilot in altitude-hold mode produces a 200-fpm descent. Solution – Cannot reproduce problem on ground.

Problem – Evidence of leak on right main landing gear. Solution – Evidence removed.

Problem – DME volume unbelievably loud. Solution – Volume set to more believable level.

Problem – Friction locks cause throttle levers to stick. Solution – That’s what they are there for!

Problem – IFF inoperative. Solution – IFF always inoperative in OFF mode.

Problem – Suspected crack in windscreen. Solution – Suspect you’re right.

Problem – Number 3 engine missing. Solution – Engine found on right wing after brief search.

Problem – Aircraft handles funny. Solution – Aircraft warned to “Straighten up, Fly Right, and Be Serious.”

Problem – Target radar hums. Solution – Reprogrammed target radar with words.

Problem – Mouse in cockpit. Solution – Cat installed. Defect: The autopilot doesn’t. Action: IT DOES NOW.

Defect: Seat cushion in 13F smells rotten. Action: Fresh seat cushion on order.

Defect: Turn & slip indicator ball stuck in center during turns. Action: Congratulations. You just made your first coordinated turn!

Defect: Whining sound heard on engine shutdown. Action: Pilot removed from aircraft.

Defect: Pilot’s clock inoperative. Action: Wound clock.

Defect: Autopilot tends to drop a wing when fuel imbalance reaches 500 pounds. Action: Flight manual limits maximum fuel imbalance to 300 pounds.

Defect: #2 ADF needle runs wild. Action: Caught and tamed #2 ADF needle.

Defect: Unfamiliar noise coming from #2 engine. Action: Engine run for four hours. Noise now familiar.

Defect: Noise coming from #2 engine. Sounds like man with little hammer. Action: Took little hammer away from man in #2 engine.

Defect: Whining noise coming from #2 engine compartment. Action: Returned little hammer to man in #2 engine.

Defect: Flight attendant cold at altitude. Action: Ground checks OK.

Defect: 3 roaches in cabin. Action: 1 roach killed, 1 wounded, 1 got away.

Defect: Weather radar went ape! Action: Opened radar, let out ape, cleaned up mess!

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Ham Radio Fests!!!!

Ham Radio Fests!!!!

HAMFEST/CONVENTION

09/24/2016 | SMARTSFEST 2016
Location:
Henderson, MN

Type: ARRL Hamfest

Sponsor: SERT Radio Club & SMARTS Club

Learn More

HAMFEST/CONVENTION

10/01/2016 | Last Chance Tailgate
Location:
Plymouth, MN

Type: ARRL Hamfest

Sponsor: Twin City FM Club

Website: http://tcfmc.org

Learn More

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GENERAL AVIATION RULES OF THUMB

Combing the internet and this fell out:.. trust but verify, folks.

GENERAL AVIATION RULES OF THUMB

Standard Pressure, Temperature, and Lapse Rate
Sea level standard pressure = 29.92″ hg
Standard lapse rate = -1″ hg. for each 1000′ increase in altitude
Sea level standard temperature = 15°C / 59°F
Standard Lapse Rate = -2°C / -3.5°F for each 1000’ increase in altitude
 

Take Off
T/O distance increases 15% for each 1000′ DA above sea level
A 10% change in A/C weight will result in a 20% change in T/O distance
Available engine HP decreases 3% for each 1000′ of altitude above sea level
Fixed pitch, non-turbo A/C climb performance decreases 8% for each 1000′ DA above sea level
Variable pitch, non-turbo A/C climb performance decreases 7% for each 1000′ DA above sea level
During each 1000′ of climb, expect to see a loss of approximately 1” of manifold pressure
During each 1000′ of climb, expect TAS to increase 2%
If you don’t have 70% of your take off speed by runway midpoint, abort the take off
Level Off – Lead your level off by 10% of airplane’s rate of climb. e.g. – 500’/minute rate of climb; lead level off by 50′
Pressure Altitude – Set A/C altimeter to 29.92 and read PA from the altimeter
DA increases or decreases 120′ for each 10°C the temperature varies from standard temperature
Standard temperature (ISA) decreases 2°C Per 1000′ increase in altitude
TAS increases 2% over IAS for each 1000′ above sea level
 

MANEUVERING
Maneuvering speed Va = ~1.7 x Vs1
Va decreases 1% for each 2% reduction in gross weight
Vy decreases ~1/2 to 1 knot for each 1000′ DA
Vy, Vx and Vg (best glide) decreases ~1/2 Knot for Each 100 pounds Under MGW
Vr = ~1.15 x Vs
 

Cruise
The width of one finger = ~5NM on a sectional chart (average person)
Tip of the thumb to the knuckle = ~10NM on a sectional chart (average person)
Cruise fuel consumption of a non-turbocharged A/C engine = ~1/2 the rated HP/10
Cruise climb airspeed should be reduced by 1% for each 1000′ of climb
To determine a relatively proficient cruise climb speed, take the difference between Vx and Vy and add that sum to Vy. For example, if Vx = 65 and Vy = 75, the difference is 10KTS. Add 10KTS to Vy (75KTS) and you have a cruise climb of 85KTS
Landing
Final Approach Speed = 1.3 x Vso. Also known as Vref
A tailwind of 10% of your final approach speed increases your landing distance by 20%; A headwind of 10% decreases landing distance by 20%
A 10% change in airspeed will cause a 20% change in stopping distance
A slippery or wet runway may increase your landing distance by 50%
For each knot above Vref over the numbers, the touchdown point will be 100′ further down the runway
For each 1000′ increase in field elevation, stopping distance increases 4%
A 10 Reduction in Approach Angle Will Increase Landing Distance 13%
10° – 25° of flaps add more lift than drag; 25° – 40° flaps add more drag than lift
 

Maximum Glide
Weight has no effect on max. glide range or ratio
Weight does have an effect on max. glide airspeed
Reduce glide speed 5% for each 10% decrease in gross weight
Tailwinds increase glide range; headwinds reduce glide range
With a 10, 20 or 30 KT tailwind, reduce glide speed by 4, 6 or 8 KT, respectively
With a headwind, increase glide speed by 50% of the headwind component
Maximum Glide = Minimum Drag. Low on fuel? Fly an airspeed equal to maximum glide to achieve maximum endurance
 

Other
Rollout from a turn – Lead your rollout by an amount equal to _ your bank angle. e.g. – 30° angle of bank; lead rollout by 15° prior to new heading
The radius of a standard rate turn in meters = TAS x 10
Most structural icing occurs between 0°C to –10°C
Deviate 10-20 miles upwind around thunderstorms; Don’t fly under anvil
Hail may be found 10 miles or more underneath the anvil
Dew point of 10°C or 53°F = Enough moisture present for severe thunderstorms

Compiled by Jim Van Namee. Jim is a CFII at Taos Regional Airport. He is a retired Naval Aviator and owner of Silver Eagle Aviation. Jim can be reached at 505-377-6786 or jimvn@aol.com.

Editor’s note: These “rules of thumb” are meant as general observations. Pilots should consult official materials, such as approved charts and aircraft manufacturers operating handbooks, for information specific to their aircraft or flight.

Copied from: http://www.swaviator.com/html/issueJF03/Basics1203.html

 

Happy flying,

K0FEY

K0feyProp

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