Standard Pressure, Temperature, and Lapse Rate
Sea level standard pressure = 29.92″ hg
Standard lapse rate = -1″ hg. for each 1000′ increase in altitude
Sea level standard temperature = 15°C / 59°F
Standard Lapse Rate = -2°C / -3.5°F for each 1000’ increase in altitude
Take Off
T/O distance increases 15% for each 1000′ DA above sea level
A 10% change in A/C weight will result in a 20% change in T/O distance
Available engine HP decreases 3% for each 1000′ of altitude above sea level
Fixed pitch, non-turbo A/C climb performance decreases 8% for each 1000′ DA above sea level
Variable pitch, non-turbo A/C climb performance decreases 7% for each 1000′ DA above sea level
During each 1000′ of climb, expect to see a loss of approximately 1” of manifold pressure
During each 1000′ of climb, expect TAS to increase 2%
If you don’t have 70% of your take off speed by runway midpoint, abort the take off
Level Off – Lead your level off by 10% of airplane’s rate of climb. e.g. – 500’/minute rate of climb; lead level off by 50′
Pressure Altitude – Set A/C altimeter to 29.92 and read PA from the altimeter
DA increases or decreases 120′ for each 10°C the temperature varies from standard temperature
Standard temperature (ISA) decreases 2°C Per 1000′ increase in altitude
TAS increases 2% over IAS for each 1000′ above sea level
MANEUVERING
Maneuvering speed Va = ~1.7 x Vs1
Va decreases 1% for each 2% reduction in gross weight
Vy decreases ~1/2 to 1 knot for each 1000′ DA
Vy, Vx and Vg (best glide) decreases ~1/2 Knot for Each 100 pounds Under MGW
Vr = ~1.15 x Vs
Cruise
The width of one finger = ~5NM on a sectional chart (average person)
Tip of the thumb to the knuckle = ~10NM on a sectional chart (average person)
Cruise fuel consumption of a non-turbocharged A/C engine = ~1/2 the rated HP/10
Cruise climb airspeed should be reduced by 1% for each 1000′ of climb
To determine a relatively proficient cruise climb speed, take the difference between Vx and Vy and add that sum to Vy. For example, if Vx = 65 and Vy = 75, the difference is 10KTS. Add 10KTS to Vy (75KTS) and you have a cruise climb of 85KTS
Landing
Final Approach Speed = 1.3 x Vso. Also known as Vref
A tailwind of 10% of your final approach speed increases your landing distance by 20%; A headwind of 10% decreases landing distance by 20%
A 10% change in airspeed will cause a 20% change in stopping distance
A slippery or wet runway may increase your landing distance by 50%
For each knot above Vref over the numbers, the touchdown point will be 100′ further down the runway
For each 1000′ increase in field elevation, stopping distance increases 4%
A 10 Reduction in Approach Angle Will Increase Landing Distance 13%
10° – 25° of flaps add more lift than drag; 25° – 40° flaps add more drag than lift
Maximum Glide
Weight has no effect on max. glide range or ratio
Weight does have an effect on max. glide airspeed
Reduce glide speed 5% for each 10% decrease in gross weight
Tailwinds increase glide range; headwinds reduce glide range
With a 10, 20 or 30 KT tailwind, reduce glide speed by 4, 6 or 8 KT, respectively
With a headwind, increase glide speed by 50% of the headwind component
Maximum Glide = Minimum Drag. Low on fuel? Fly an airspeed equal to maximum glide to achieve maximum endurance
Other
Rollout from a turn – Lead your rollout by an amount equal to _ your bank angle. e.g. – 30° angle of bank; lead rollout by 15° prior to new heading
The radius of a standard rate turn in meters = TAS x 10
Most structural icing occurs between 0°C to –10°C
Deviate 10-20 miles upwind around thunderstorms; Don’t fly under anvil
Hail may be found 10 miles or more underneath the anvil
Dew point of 10°C or 53°F = Enough moisture present for severe thunderstorms |